Final GSoC’22 report: TX-power control in mac80211

(1) Goals of this GSoC project @ Freifunk

This project started with the major goal to make TPC per packet and per MRR possible in the Linux kernel. To achieve this we had several subgoals:

  • Implementation of new mac80211 status and control structures to annotate and account TX-power settings per packet
  • propose the changes to the Linux kernel to get it upstream
  • enable the TX-power per packet support in Mediatek mt76 driver and Atheros ath9k driver (TPC per MRR for ath9k)
  • validate the TPC per packet / per MRR feature

Overall seen, these goals have been reached up to now as I will explain in the following. The implementation of a TPC algorithm und subsequent performance measurements to investigate the impact of TPC in WiFi networks were not in the scope of this project. But the project is the foundation for this and makes further development possible.

To find out more about the project and its motivation, please see my first post here.

(2) What has been implemented

Here a small conclusion of which parts I have covered in my project:

  • TX-power annotation in mac80211 layer
  • TPC driver support
    • TPC support in Atheros ath9k driver
    • TPC support in Mediatek mt76 driver (mt7615 only so far)
    • TPC support in hwsim (WIP, still has some bugs)
  • static TX-power per station via debugfs
  • more work in ongoing research project ‘SupraCoNeX’

Instead of explaining everything again, I refer to the corresponding parts of my midterm post here. There I already explained some of my work in more detail. Best way to see the modifications in detail is to look at the single patches and commits referred in section (3).
There are some changes compared to the midterm status that I will explain here.

(a) TX-power annotation in mac80211

To annotate and account TX-power, some changes to the structures of mac80211 were necessary as already shown in my last post. To summarize this, the changes include:

  • add new members in struct ieee80211_tx_info.control and struct ieee80211_sta_rates
  • provide an abstract definition for different TX-power levels via struct ieee80211_hw_txpower_range
  • add additional hardware flags for TPC support
  • other required minor changes

I covered those in detail in the last post and they haven’t been changed that much since the midterm post. Only the data type of the TX-power annotation in struct ieee80211_tx_info.control and struct ieee80211_sta_rates was changed. Before, it was an 8-bit unsigned integer which is usually sufficient for power levels supported by wifi chipsets.
The data type is now a 16-bit signed integer. Power levels still can only be defined with positive indices, but negative values in the fields can be used to pass an ‘invalid’ or ‘unset’ power level. This solves the problem that otherwise the corresponding TX-power controller would always need to deliver a valid power level. By setting a negative value, the driver should determine a power level on its own. For example in ath9k, this means the default MAX_RATE_POWER is used. This is similar to the annotation of a TX-rate where usually an 8-bit signed integer is used and negative values also mean ‘invalid/unused’ rate. The size of the type needs to be 16-bit because the 8-bit would interfere with the declaration of TX-power ranges. While an u8 can address power level indices up to 255, the s8 ends at 127. Thus, 16-bit is needed.

Not to forget, prior to the beginning of GSoC I already extended and modified the TX status path in mac80211 accounting the TX-power. For details see the first two commits in the list in section (3).

(b) TPC support in wireless drivers

The support in wireless driver usually covers two code paths: control path and status path. The changes in the control path were basically easy to implement. There are less limitations and often already existing structures to pass additional information with an SKB for transmission. All three driver implementations (ath9k, mt76, hwsim) are therefore just passing the TX-power through the control path and finally write it to the TX descriptor for each packet. In case if mt76 there were no such structures for additional information, but because mt7615 only supports TPC per packet, the single member in the ieee80211_tx_info.control could be used.
However, the status path was more difficult, especially in mt76. To increase performance and have less to execute in the hot path, the status path is designed asynchronously. In detail, the SKB is usually added to a queue after transmission and will asynchronously dequeued and finally processed by a tasklet or a worker, running on another thread or core. These queues are SKB-only queues which means that every information that needs to be passed must be somehow contained or referenced in the SKB. There are fields in ieee80211_tx_info which can be used for this purpose, in particular status.status_driver_data, rate_driver_data and driver_data. These fields are then used in ath9k and mt76 to pass additional status information per packet.

The driver implementation for ath9k has been optimized a bit since the last blogpost and the mt7615 implementation was added also. But they are both by far not optimal and just intended as a first proof-of-concept, to be further developed and optimized as part of what is left to do.

(c) static TX-power per station

One way to set a fixed TX-power per sta, and also the first way that was implemented (mostly for initial tests), is via minstrel_ht rate control. An additional debugfs file is created for each station when the rate control is initiated. By writing to this file, the written TX-power index is saved by minstrel_ht and applied to each packet for which the rate control is called. In contrast to the implementation in my midterm post, where the fixed TX-power was only set per interface, it was now changed to be per station.
Although this variant was pretty easy to implement, it has some downsides. First, when the rate control is not called for a packet, the fixed TX-power has no effect. This is currently the case for non-data frames for which the rate control is not called in mac80211. Second, when a WiFi device supports TPC, but does not use a rate control algorithm in mac80211, the fixed value also has no effect. And also regarding the new feature, which I mention in section (4), this first variant is rather limited.

Thus, a second variant was implemented which just uses the mac80211 layer and the driver. The per-sta structure ieee80211_sta already has a sub-structure which describes the characteristics of a link and already has some sort of TX-power annotation (see struct ieee80211_sta_txpwr), but is not used by most drivers. To use this for static TX-power per station, the setting will be included in the TX control path of the covered drivers and a debugfs entry is added per station. This entry is independent from rate control but also recognized in the drivers.

(d) validation and the enclosing research project

The enclosing research project for my project is called SupraCoNeX and tries to make WiFi faster. This also includes the TX-power control. In the project, an API in minstrel for both rate and TX-power and userspace implementations of rate and TX-power control algorithms are developed. Those will use my work as a foundation. More details and resources will be linked below when the research project and its outcomes will be published.

As the project did not cover to implement a TPC algorithm and this would be enough work for another project, basic validation and testing of TPC was performed with the implementations. Similar to the procedure described in my midterm post, the TX-power was statically set for each tested driver to be applied per packet. By changing the TX-power and observing the RSSI measured with a monitor interface, it was validated that the power can be adjusted appropriately, is used for packet transmission, is correctly reported in the tx status and has an impact on throughput and signal strength.

(3) Where to find my work

This section will be updated regularly to include all discussions and commits in relation to the Linux kernel so the further development can be easily tracked.

All the patches and changes against Linux kernel / OpenWrt tree I have developed are currently located in a Github repository:
As soon as the changes are accepted in the ongoing or yet to be started discussions on Linux kernel mailing list, the patches will be removed and instead links to the appropriate commits will be added here.

LKML discussions:

Commits in Linux kernel:

As soon as results of the mentioned research project are published, they will be linked here too. My work is based on this project and vice versa.

(4) What is left to do and beyond

The scope of the GSoC project has been fulfilled but the overall TPC work is not finished yet. There is still some imminent work to be done, mostly optimizations and extensions:

  • include advice and improvements from LKML discussions in implementation
  • improve and extend the proof-of-concept TPC support implementations in drivers
  • include TPC for mt7603 and ath5k drivers
  • do more tests and validations

Some of these points will be done by me in the following weeks, other parts may be art of other people’s work or other projects. Part of the ongoing research project is will be the TPC algorithm and the tests associated with this, based on the driver implementations.

As the kernel always changes and support for different technologies is introduced over time, the TPC implementation may be adjusted over time. For example, work has begun in the Linux kernel wireless subsystem to support a feature which will be introduced by WiFi 7, called Multi-Link Operation (MLO). Basically, this feature allows access point (AP) and station (STA) to use multiple frequency bands (2.4GHz, 5GHz, 6GHz) in parallel for data transmission to increase performance. Possibly, my work can be extended to support MLO. Currently, both rate control (RC) and TPC only support a single link per STA respectively are not aware of multiple links.

Concluding thoughts

With this project, the foundation for further TPC development in the Linux kernel was laid by providing the required structures and extensions to annotate and account TX-power in both TX control and status path. Some things are still left to do for me and I am looking forward to continuing with my work in this project. With the work I have done ’til now, other developers can also start to work in this direction and do research or develop on top of this.

GSoC’22 was a great experience but also hard work. I clearly do not regret having done this project and I am planning to continue to develop and research in this field and to further contribute to open-source projects of any kind, e.g., the Linux kernel. During the project time I have learned so much about the structure of the Linux kernel and how it works and most importantly how development for and contribution to it are managed with the Git, maintainers and LKML.
My mentor Thomas helped me a lot regarding problems and implementation review and advice. It was great to work with him and I am looking forward to working with him again in the future.

If you got interested in my project and want to know more, have questions or even suggestions for improvements, etc., please contact me by email: or visit me on Github or LinkedIn.

I hope you liked it!

Update on TX-power control in WiFi networks – GSoC’22

Hi, Jonas here again! The first period is over and thus it’s time for an update about my GSoC’22 project ‘TX-power control in WiFi networks’. In this blogpost I will cover what I have done and achieved so far, some initial testing and evaluations, and what are the next steps for the remaining project time.

(1) Linux kernel structures for TPC

Major objective of the past weeks was to create a foundation for TPC in the Linux kernel. As I already explained in my first blog post, the Linux kernel, i.e. the mac80211 layer, has only rudimentary support for TPC per virtual interface, but not per packet or per MRR stage.

To create this foundation, it is necessary to both modify existing kernel structures and develop new structures for TX-power annotation and related information. Although the project just aims at providing TPC per packet, I decided to be more-or-less future-proof and extend this to TPC per MRR stage. There are several wifi chipsets supporting this already, and there will be more in the future.

Preliminary considerations

A major challenge when trying to implement new extensions in the network stack is the existing sk_buff structure. This structure represents a socket buffer (SKB), meaning anything related to network packets, their control and status information, the data etc. For historical and performance reasons this structure has a fixed size, has fixed-size members and is aligned properly for cache lines. But this makes it pretty hard to introduce any extensions, e.g. new members per packet as this would violate the size-constraints and lead to either a huge performance loss or a not-working network stack. This applies to both the control path and the status path. A solution for this and how this is handled is provided in a).

Another aspect that needs to be considered are the different TPC capabilities of wifi chipsets. They often differ in:

  • TPC supported? / per packet / per MRR stage
  • TX-power levels and power step size

Instead of using a ‘smallest common denominator’ solution for all wifi chipsets, which would not make use of the extended capabilities of some chipsets but just a common subset for all, another approach was chosen. To achieve the best coverage of all different capabilities, the structures and annotations for TPC are designed as abstract as possible.

(a) TX-power annotation

To annotate TX-power per packet and per MRR stage, the kernel structure ieee80211_sta_rates is used. This structure was introduced several years ago to overcome the limitations of sk_buff and the fixed-size control buffer for each network packet. In contrast to the control buffer, this structure is not attached to each sk_buff but rather attached to an STA and can be filled by RC algorithm and read in the TX path of a driver asynchronously. Prior to this method, the driver had to call the RC algorithm each time to retrieve the rateset for a packet.

struct ieee80211_sta_rates {
	struct rcu_head rcu_head;
	struct {
		s8 idx;
		u8 count;
		u8 count_cts;
		u8 count_rts;
		u16 flags;
+               u8 tx_power_idx;
	} rate[IEEE80211_TX_RATE_TABLE_SIZE];

To the internal rate array, which already allows to pass information per MRR stage, a member for the TX-power is added. The data type unsigned 8-bit is large enough at the moment but can be easily widened if necessary.

For backwards compatibility and supporting TPC with probing, a modification of the previously mentioned control buffer per packet is also necessary. Although this does not allow an annotation per MRR stage, it is still required for compatibility reasons as some drivers still do not use the new rate table, and for probing. Probing still uses the information directly embedded into the control buffer instead of the rate table for the first rate entry / MRR stage or applies this information to the whole packet. To support this, a new member for TX-power is added to the control buffer structure:

struct ieee80211_tx_info {
    struct {
        struct ieee80211_tx_rate rates[IEEE80211_TX_MAX_RATES];
+       u8 tx_power_idx;
    } control;

(b) Supporting different TX-power capabilities

To support different TX-power levels, ranges and step widths, the TX-power in the mac80211 layer is always specified as an index into a list of TX-power levels. This way, the mac80211 layer and RC algorithms can handle different capabilities in an abstract way, reducing code complexity and keeping possible performance effects to a minimum.

The list of supported TX-power levels is provided by the driver at time of initialization. Instead of populating a dynamically sized list with all possible TX-power levels, which would require space for each level, a driver needs to provide so-called ‘TX-power range descriptors’. A corresponding C implementation of such a descriptor for wireless TX-power was developed:

struct ieee80211_hw_tx_power_range {
    u8 start_idx;
    s8 start_pwr;
    u16 n_levels;
    s8 pwr_step;

With this structure, the driver can define several TX-power level ranges by specifiying an starting index, a starting power, the number of levels in this range and a step width. TX-power levels are always specified in 0.25 dBm steps to be able to define fine-grained power levels. Drivers can define several TX-power ranges with each a different step width, ascending or descending power with ascending indices, etc.

struct ieee80211_hw {
+   struct ieee80211_hw_tx_power_range *tx_power_ranges;
+   u8 n_power_ranges;

A pointer and a length indicator are added to the ieee80211_hw structure which must be filled by a wireless driver before registering a new wifi device in the mac80211 layer.
This changes modify what was introduced by one of the commits I mentioned in my first blog post. After some implementation progress we realized, that this is much more optimal than what we initially planned to use, which was in fact a dynamically sized list containing all supported power levels.

(c) Other modifications

Some wifi chipsets do not even allow any kind of TPC, thus it should be avoided to perform calculations and keep statistics for such interfaces. To achieve this two new support flags were added. One of these also needs to be set before registering the wifi hardware to indicate TPC support. These flags are called IEEE80211_HW_SUPPORTS_TPC_PER_PACKET and IEEE80211_HW_SUPPORTS_TPC_PER_MRR. If both flags are not set, the driver and / or the wifi hardware does not allow or support TPC. TPC algorithms then do not need to be initialized or, in case of a joint rate and TX-power variant, the algorithm can deactivate its TX-power part.

Due to the changes that were introduced in with the commits mentioned in my first blog post, the usage of rate_info is preferred over the usage of ieee80211_tx_rate. But most parts of mac80211 and also most drivers still use ieee80211_tx_rate. And there was no utility function for the conversion between ieee80211_tx_rate and rate_info so far. Thus, this implementation provides such an utility function for this purpose, especially as it is required in the TPC implementation in ath9k. It is included in the mac80211 layer und thus available to all parts of the wireless stack, including other drivers.

(2) TPC support in ath9k for Atheros 802.11 a/b/g/n chipsets

To verify the implementation and to provide a first step towards TPC supported by several wireless drivers, the ath9k wireless driver, which is responsible for Atheros 802.11 a/b/g/n AR9xxx chipsets, is extended to make use of the new mac80211 capabilities. TPC support in ath9k was already partially implemented before, but has been disabled up to now.

ath9k has a fairly easy power range. It supports 0 dBm up to 32 dBm in 0.5 dBm steps, thus the power range is linear and the range 0 … 63 can be directly used as indices for TX-power, making it easier to set and read TX-power. This range can be easily described with a single instance of the aforementioned TX-power range descriptor. Overall seen is TPC in ath9k rather easy to implement in the control path.

A bit more challenging was the status path, especially after receiving an ACK for a packet and before the TX status is reported. For performance reasons, this is already done asynchronously. Completed SKBs are filled with information, attached to a queue and then later asynchronously dequeued and processed for TX status report. Due to the already mentioned size limitations in the SKB, TX-power could not be easily reported the same way as rates are. As a workaround, a new structure was created for this purpose but also for future extensions.

struct ath_tx_status_ext {
    u8 tx_power_idx[4];

In the status buffer in SKB, the driver can place pointers to internal data for several purposes. Thankfully, ath9k didn’t make use of all these pointers, thus a reference to an instance of this structure can be placed in the SKB and is then available when the TX status report queue is processed. The structure can be extended in the future and has no size limitations.

(3) Setting fixed TX-power with debugfs

Appropriate structures for minstrel_ht and a TPC algorithm have not been yet implemented as this will be part of the following weeks. To be able to already test TPC and to provide a way for setting a fixed TX-power for other purposes, minstrel_ht was modified to already accept a fixed TX-power for all packets set via debugfs. Following the Unix philosophy ‘everything is a file’, debugfs is a simple way for kernel modules to interact with user space applications by providing debug information or accepting parameters. Debugfs can be used like a filesystem, reading from file to get debug information or writing to a file to set e.g. a fixed rate or a fixed TX-power for wireless drivers. Many kernel modules make use of debugfs, e.g. minstrel_ht RC algorithm or the ath9k driver.

The fixed TX-power set via debugfs is written to the rate table of an STA on each update and then used by the wireless driver. minstrel_ht already uses a debugfs-file to support fixed rate setting, thus another file is added to support the same for TX-power.

echo 63 > /sys/kernel/debug/ieee80211/phy0/rc/fixed_txpwr_idx

By writing, e.g., 63 to the file mentioned above, the TX-power will be set to the maximum possible power for ath9k in all packets that retrieve the TX-power from minstrel_ht. Similarly, when writing 0 to the same file, all affected packets will use the least possible TX-power. This may not be the final path of the file, there will likely be a file per STA, not per PHY, and it may be located in a slightly different subdirectory.

(4) First tests and evaluations

Some tests were already performed with an APU board with ath9k wifi chipsets acting as the access point. This is a very basic but rather realistic setup, the clients are not exactly close to the AP, there is one wall and around 3-6 meters distance between. Three clients were then used:

  • iPhone 11
  • Xiaomi MiR 4A
  • Xiaomi Redmi AC1200

iPerf3 is used to generate traffic and measure throughput depending on the currently set TX-power. tcpdump is used on a monitor interface to measure the RSSI for all captured packets depending on the currently set TX-power. Below you can see two measurement plots of the experiments with iPhone 11 and Xiaomi MiR 4A. For the Redmi the measurement did not lead to any remarkable change in throughput.

Plots of throughput and RSSI in relation to adjusted TX-power from AP to client (left: iPhone 11, right: Xiaomi MiR 4A)

Both plots show an increase in RSSI when the TX-power is increased up to a specific point. Also the throughput usually increases, but this also depends on the actual noise, connection quality and other disturbances. Especially in case of the MiR 4A, the connection was rather bad and the throughput fluctuated more often due to instabilities, etc.

For all clients, it can be seen that after reaching a TX-power index above 45, the measured RSSI won’t increase anymore and just fluctuates due to noise. This is likely because of TX-power regulations, e.g., in Germany and many other countries the maximum TX-power for channel 36 in 5GHz band is limited to 23 dBm which would be a TX-power index of 46. Although a higher index can be set, the actual TX-power is limited by this regulatory. This will later also be included in the TX status to avoid any confusing or incorrect information.

Another observation can be made when the increasing TX-power index still leads to a higher RSSI, but the throughput stays at a level. In fact, this means that further increasing the power has no positive effect, does not lead to more throughput. It just leads to more interference in a network consisting of multiple devices and thus decreasing the overall network performance and “wasting” energy. This of course heavily depends on the capabilities of AP and STA as seen in the tests. The throughput with smaller devices, which have, e.g., less and smaller antennas, decreases much more with decreasing TX-power than with bigger device which have, e.g., more and larger antennas. For the Redmi AC1200, for example, no remarkable decrease in throughput measured could be measured while decreasing the TX-power.

(5) Conclusion and outlook

After this first period, the project achieved some remarkable progress. A mac80211 implementation with appropriate modifications and new structures was developed. By making use of this implementation in ath9k driver and performing some tests with different clients, it can be seen that it works, the TX-power can be adjusted and has an immediate effect. Also the major point of TPC could be observed: TX-power in wifi networks can be decreased for several STA without a remarkable decrease in throughput, but lower overall interference in the whole network and thus higher overall network performance.

For the second period, there are several goals:

  • optimization of the mac80211 and ath9k implementations
  • implementing TPC in mt76 driver for Mediatek wifi chipsets
  • propose changes as patches to the Linux kernel mailing list
  • testing and validation of TPC
  • implementation of TPC algorithm

minstrel_ht will be used as the starting point to implement a joint rate and TX-power control algorithm that tries to find the best rate-power combination for an STA. For this, some structures and calculations inside minstrel_ht have to be modified. In addition, setting a fixed TX-power will be possible per STA, in the current state it is only possible to set it per interface. This requires some further adjustments to the debugfs usage inside minstrel_ht.

As the implementation progress goes on, tests and evaluations are becoming more and more important to see whether the implementation performs as expected and which performance and/or stability gains are possible by using TPC in combination with RC. There will be extended tests with appropriate TX-power and signal measurements, also covering overall WiFi network throughput.

Thanks for reading!

TX-power control in WiFi networks – GSoC’22

Hello everyone!
My name is Jonas and I have the opportunity to be part of GSoC’22 cycle. With this first post I would like to introduce me and my project. The essence of the project is to provide and evaluate an implementation for TX-power control in the WiFi subsystem of the Linux kernel.

About me

I’m Jonas Jelonek and I recently finished my bachelor degree in ‘Automation and Electronics Engineering’ at the University of Applied Sciences Nordhausen in Germany. This summer I have some free time before I will begin my master studies in October, which I will spend on realizing my GSoC’22 project.

Coding has been a passion of mine for a long time and I have always been a fan of open source software (OSS) and hardware as they usually provide more possibilities and benefits as their proprietary counterparts. OSS is ubiquitous in my environment as I love both to use and to contribute to OSS, and also to share my code with others. During my studies, I had the opportunity to extend my knowledge and coding skills, and also to get more in touch with open source projects. I am involved in projects targeting research whose achievements are later going to be available open source.
Besides, I also had the honor to visit conferences like MECO, SSEA and ESA PAC which aim at sharing knowledge and expertise in fields of hardware and software engineering and offer the possibility to get in touch with scientists and engineers from other countries.

My motivation

My motivation mainly comes from a research project I have been part of since 2020. This project aims at developing, implementing and evaluating new and improved resource allocation algorithms for WiFi networks. As WiFi networks are becoming more and more important, the same applies to their reliability and performance and the efficiency of the underlying hardware. TX-power control (TPC) is a way to improve this by adjusting the transmit power per packet or per multi-rate retry (MRR), resulting in overall higher throughput in wireless networks and/or higher efficiency by optimized resource allocation.

Beginning in 2007, Atheros 802.11a/b/g/n chipsets (driven by ath5k and ath9k Linux drivers) started to support TPC in hardware, followed by Mediatek recently. They allow to set the TX-power per packet, but yet do not provide a driver interface for this in the corresponding Linux drivers. Unfortunately, also the mac80211 subsystem, which is responsible for WiFi communication in the Linux kernel, does not provide an appropriate API to support TPC and per-packet/per-multi-rate-retry annotation of TX-power.

I want to change that! I want to provide a proper TPC API for the Linux kernel to extend its support in several devices and to allow several projects to research the improvements and opportunities of TPC for wireless networks.

What we want to achieve …

Main goal of this project is to implement the missing three-tier software parts that make TPC for WiFi hardware in the Linux kernel possible:

  • (1) mac80211 structs to annotate TX-power levels per packet
  • (2) mac80211 structs to account TX-power status information once transmitted
  • (3) a TX-power control (TPC) API for TPC algorithms

This is achieved by developing and implementing the required structs in the mac80211 subsystem. These steps are subject of the first milestones and will be worked on in phase 1 of the coding period.

In addition to this, I will modify several Linux WiFi drivers to make use of this API. In the beginning we target to use ath9k and mt76 WiFi drivers for Atheros and Mediatek hardware. This hardware will then be used to test and validate the implementation in several experiments. These further changes and the evaluations are part of phase 2 of the coding period.

What we have done so far …

Usually, some time passes between the submission of a patch to the kernel mailing list and its final integration in a kernel release. We have already been preparing the implementation of TPC in the Linux kernel for some time with some patches .
Before GSoC I already worked on ath9k and ath5k Linux drivers, changing the way those two drivers receive TX rates from rate control algorithm to use the latest mac80211 structs instead of legacy ones. This simplifies further adjustments mandatory for TPC during the GSoC project. The corresponding patches were posted on the kernel mailing list in Nov 2021, and were included in the Linux kernel release 5.16 in Dec 2021. (commits 7f3a6f5dd207ecd582e1f02ebdb498493770a490 and a5d862da91058a855ab00bf46b5383543bbf3979)

In May 2022, I implemented changes in the TX status path of the mac80211 subsystem, minstrel_ht rate control (RC) and two WiFi drivers, and proposed them as patches on the kernel mailing list. They already include a new struct that allows the usage of all MCS rates (including 802.11ax and above, before only up to 802.11ac) and TX power annotation in status path, changes in minstrel_ht to make use of these changes and resulting changes in WiFi drivers mt76 and ath11k. These changes were approved within short time and will be included in the upcoming release 5.19 of the Linux kernel. (commits 44fa75f207d8a106bc75e6230db61e961fdbf8a8 and 569cf386ec5f4619388ae0c62169175dc2804f32)

In the community bonding period, I discussed the project objectives with my mentor and we made a plan for the upcoming steps of the project. After that, I started to work on the structs and their implementation that are part of the first milestones of the project.

What’s next?

As already mentioned in the text, there are several steps to work on and it’s a tight schedule. I already started to work in the structs and their implementation, and this will also be the task for the following weeks. This usually takes some time to develop a proper and well-thought design.
But I also the integration of this API into the already mentioned drivers will be begun in by the end of this period.

That’s my project!
I will keep you up to date with the progress. Keep watching!

Thanks for reading!